Student Nurse Laura

Orem – "creative effort of one human being to help another human being."

Archive for the ‘Drugs’ Category

For OB and Chronic Med Surg

Med Cards

Posted by Laura on January 7, 2010

I am trying something different with my medications.

Not mine really – those are generally under lock-and-key.   

   I mean the medications to learn for these classess. Obviously we need to know all the meds for the NCLEX in the end of the program. Also there are a few repeats – though they are used for different therapeutic effects depending on what module we are reading. Instead of repeating my work, I’m going to put them on 4 x 6 cards so I can pull them for the next module and update as needed. These are my OB cards. I have more to fill still, and I am updating important info on them as I read.

This link for Module 1 (updated 1/10/10) Cards →   .pdf   or .doc

I figure if I put them in a word doc, then when they need to be updated I can reprint it with just a few changes. Such as Terbutaline, a bronchodiltor. In OB it is also used  “Unlabeled” as a tocolytic (medication used to suppress pre-term labor). I also read it is used to relax the uterus to turn the baby. So this card will be one that I would update and reprint. That’s the latest plan by student nurse laura.

*Disclaimer – Every attempt has been made by me, a learning student nurse, to insure accuracy of medication info.  If you find an error please contact me. If you have any questions whatsoever or are unsure about anything on this site double check with your instructor or please refer to your textbook. Thanks!

Thanks Gary!

Posted in Drugs, Semester II | Tagged: , , , | 1 Comment »

Chronic Medications

Posted by Laura on December 30, 2009

Module 1

Insulins: Be able to state onset, peak, duration, and required nursing actions for the following

*        Lispro (Humulog)                                
*        NPH (Humulin, Novolin)   
*        Aspart (Novolog)                               
*        Glargine (Lantus)
*        Regular                                            
*        Ultralente

Be able to state the purpose, action, adverse, side effects, and usual dosages of the following medications:

  • 1st generation sulfonylureas: Chlorpropamide (Diabinese
  • Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitor:  acarbose(Precose)
  • 2nd generation sulfonylureas: glipizide(Glucatrol)
  • Non-Sulfonylureas:  repaglinide (Prandin), neteglide(Starlix)
  • Biguanides:  Metformin(Glucophage)
  • Thiazolidinediones(glitazones):  Pioglitazone(Actos), rosiglitazone(Avandia)
  • Glucogon 

    Module 4

    Be able to state the purpose, action, adverse, side effects, and usual dosages of the following medications:

    *           Isoniazid(INH)                                 
    *           Pyrazinamide(Myambutol)
    *           Rifampin(Rifidin)                            
    *           Rifapentine(Priftin)
    *           Rifabutin(Mycobutin)                     
    *           Streptomycin

    Module 5

    •           Solumedrol  
    •            Metaproterenol(Alupent)
    •           Prednisone  
    •           Salmeterol(Serevent Diskus)
    •           Montelukast(Singular)       
    •           Ipratropium bromide(Atrovent)
    •           Zafirlukast(Accolate)          
    •          Aminophylline(Phyllocontin)
    •           Zileuton(Zyflo)         
    •           Theophylline(Sloe-bid, Theo-Dur)
    •           Albuterol(Proventil, Ventolin, Volmax)   
    •          Advair Comb. (salmeterol/fluticasone)

    Module 6

             Pentoxifylline (Trental)      
            Warfarin (Coumadin)
             Clopidogrel (Plavix)
             Enoxaparin (Lovenox)
            Protamine Sulfate  
             Aquamephyton (Vit. K)
             Dipyridamole (Persantine, Aggranox)

    Module 7

    Thiazide diuretic Alpha blocker
    Hydrochlorothiazide Doxazosin
    Loop diuretic Prazosin
    Furosemide Terazosin
    Bumetanide Combined alpha and beta blocker
    Potassium sparing diuretic Carvedilol
    Spironolactone Labetalol
    Central alpha agonist Vasodilator
    Methyldopa Hydralizine
    Clonidine Minoxidil
    Beta blocker Angiotensin Conversion Enzyme-Inhibitor
    Atenolol Benazepril
    Propranolol Captopril
    Metoprolol Enalapril
    Nadolol Fosinopril
    Calcium Channel Blockers Lisinopril
    Amlodipine Ramipril
    Felodipine Angiotensin Receptor Blocker
    Nifedipine Irbesartan
    Nisoldipine Losartan
    Diltiaziem Olmesatrtan
    Verapamil Valsartan


    Module 9

    Statins Nicotinic Acid
    • Lovastatin
    • Niacin
    • Prevastatin
      Fibric acids
    • Simvastatin
    • Fenofibrate
    • Fluvastatin
      Bile acid sequestrants
    • Atorvastatin calcium
    • Cholestramine
    • Rosuvastatin
      Cardiac Glycosides
    Nitrates Lanoxin (Digoxin)
    • Ntiroglycerin,
    • Isorbidinitrate
    Digibind (antagonist)


    Module 10

    Alkylating agents Hormonal agents
    Busulfan, carboplatin, chlorambucil, cisplatin, cyclophosphamide, dacarbazine, hexamethyl melamine, ifosfamide, melphalan, nitrogen mustard, oxaliplatin, thiotepa Androgens and anti-androgens, estrogens and anti-estrogens, progestins and anti-progestins, aromatase inhibitors, luteinizing hormone, steroids
    Nitrosureas Antimetbolites
    Carmustine, lomustine, semustine, streptozocin 5-Azacytadine, capecitabine, cytararbine, edatrexate fludarabine, 5-fluorouracil, hydroxyurea, methotrexate, pentostatin
    Mitotic spindle poisons Antitumor antibiotics
    Plant alkoloids: vinblastine, vincristine, Bleomycin, doxorubicin, mitomycin, mitoxantrone
    Misc: Asparaginase   


    Module 11

    • Benadryl       
    • Epinephrine             
    • Corticosteroids
    • Acetaminophen      
    • Furosemide 


    Module 12
              Folic acid      
             Ibuprophen (NSAID)          

    Posted in Day-to-Day, Drugs, NS 122 - Med/Surg, Semester II | Tagged: | Comments Off on Chronic Medications

    Beers List

    Posted by Laura on December 29, 2009

    The Beers list, sometimes referred to as the Beers criteria, was developed by a group of 12 clinicians with expertise in geriatrics and led by Dr. Mark Beers (Editor in-Chief of Merck Manual).  First released in 1991, the Beers List was initially created to help clinicians determine which medications should be avoided in nursing home patients since seniors in nursing homes are particularly at risk for suffering medication-related problems.  Since then, the Beers List has been updated twice with the latest revision released in 2003.  The list has been broadened to encompass potentially inappropriate medications for the senior population regardless of where they reside or receive care.  In addition, the list has been divided into two primary groups: a list of medications considered potentially inappropriate independent of diseases/conditions, and a list of medications considered potentially inappropriate when used in seniors with certain diseases or conditions. The medications listed will link to Medline Plus by the US National Library of Medicine (NLM).

                                  Beers List  (Beers Criteria)

    A I
    alprazolam (Xanax) indomethacin (Indocin, Indocin SR)
    amiodarone (Cordarone) isoxsuprine (Vasodilan)
    amitriptyline (Elavil) K
    amphetamines ketorolac (Toradol)
    anorexic agents L
    B lorazepam (Ativan)
    barbiturates M
    belladonna alkaloids (Donnatal) meperidine (Demerol)
    bisacodyl (Dulcolax) meprobamate (Miltown, Equanil)
    C mesoridazine (Serintil)
    carisoprodol (Soma) metaxalone (Skelaxin)
    cascara sagrada methocarbamol (Robaxin)
    chlordiazepoxide (Librium, Mitran) methyldopa (Aldomet)
    chlordiazepoxide-amitriptyline (Limbitrol) methyldopa-hydrochlorothiazide (Aldoril)
    chlorpheniramine (Chlor-Trimeton) methyltestosterone (Android, Virilon, Testrad)
    chlorpropamide (Diabinese) mineral oil
    chlorzoxazone (Paraflex) N
    cimetidine (Tagamet) naproxen (Naprosyn, Avaprox, Aleve)
    clidinium-chlordiazepoxide (Librax) Neoloid
    clonidine (Catapres) nifedipine (Procardia, Adalat)
    clorazepate (Tranxene) nitrofurantoin (Microdantin)
    cyclandelate (Cyclospasmol) O
    cyclobenzaprine (Flexeril) orphenadrine (Norflex)
    cyproheptadine (Periactin) oxaprozin (Daypro)
    D oxazepam (Serax)
    dessicated thyroid oxybutynin (Ditropan)
    dexchlorpheniramine (Polaramine) P
    diazepam (Valium) pentazocine (Talwin)
    dicyclomine (Bentyl) perphenazine-amitriptyline (Triavil)
    digoxin (Lanoxin) piroxicam (Feldene)
    diphenhydramine (Benadryl) promethazine (Phenergan)
    dipyridamole (Persantine) propantheline (Pro-Banthine)
    disopyramide (Norpace, Norpace CR) propoxyphene (Darvon) and combination products
    doxazosin (Cardura) Q
    doxepin (Sinequan) quazepam (Doral)
    E R
    ergot mesyloids (Hydergine) reserpine (Serpalan, Serpasil)
    estrogens T
    ethacrynic acid (Edecrin) temazepam (Restoril)
    F thioridazine (Mellaril)
    ferrous sulfate (iron) ticlopidine (Ticlid)
    fluoxetine (Prozac) triazolam (Halcion)
    flurazepam (Dalmane) trimethobenzamide (Tigan)
    G tripelennamine
    guanadrel (Hylorel)  
    guanethidine (Ismelin)  
    halazepam (Paxipam)  
    hydroxyzine (Vistaril, Atarax)  
    hyoscyamine (Levsin, Levsinex)  

    Posted in Drugs, Semester II | Tagged: , | Comments Off on Beers List

    5 Pregnancy Category Ratings – A, B, C, D, X

    Posted by Laura on December 27, 2009

    According to the US Department of Health and Human Services, the FDA created pregnancy letter categories to help explain what is known about using medicine during pregnancy. This system assigns letter categories to all prescription medicines. The letter category is listed in the label of a prescription medicine. The label states whether studies were done in pregnant women or pregnant animals and if so, what happened.

    Over-the-counter (OTC) medicines do not have a pregnancy letter category. Some OTC medicines were prescription medicines first and used to have a letter category.

    OTC Medicines

    All OTC medicines have a Drug Facts label. The Drug Facts label is arranged the same way on all OTC medicines. This makes information about using the medicine easier to find. One section of the Drug Facts label is for pregnant women. With OTC medicines, the label usually tells a pregnant woman to speak with her doctor before using the medicine. Some OTC medicines are known to cause certain problems in pregnancy. The labels for these medicines give pregnant women facts about why and when they should not use the medicine. Here are some examples:

    • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like ibuprofen (Advil®, Motrin®), naproxen (Aleve®), and aspirin (acetylsalicylate), can cause serious blood flow problems in the baby if used during the last third of pregnancy (after 28 weeks). Also, aspirin may increase the chance for bleeding problems in the mother and the baby during pregnancy or at delivery.
    • The labels for nicotine therapy drugs, like the nicotine patch and lozenge, remind women that smoking can harm an unborn child. While the medicine is thought to be safer than smoking, the risks of the medicine are not fully known. Pregnant smokers are told to try quitting without the medicine first.

    Prescription Medicines

    The FDA chooses a medicine’s letter category based on what is known about the medicine when used in pregnant women and animals.

    Definition of Medicine Catogories
    Pregnancy Category Definition Examples of Drugs
    A In human studies, pregnant women used the medicine and their babies did not have any problems related to using the medicine.
    • Folic acid
    • Levothyroxine (thyroid hormone medicine)
    B In humans, there are no good studies. But in animal studies, pregnant animals received the medicine, and the babies did not show any problems related to the medicine.OrIn animal studies, pregnant animals received the medicine, and some babies had problems. But in human studies, pregnant women used the medicine and their babies did not have any problems related to using the medicine.
    • Some antibiotics like amoxicillin.
    • Zofran® (ondansetron) for nausea
    • Glucophage® (metformin) for diabetes
    • Some insulins used to treat diabetes such as regular and NPH insulin.
    • AVC OB Meds: Ampicillin, Ancef, Benadryl
    C In humans, there are no good studies. In animals, pregnant animals treated with the medicine had some babies with problems. However, sometimes the medicine may still help the human mothers and babies more than it might harm.OrNo animal studies have been done, and there are no good studies in pregnant women.
    • Diflucan® (fluconazole) for yeast infections
    • Ventolin® (albuterol) for asthma
    • Zoloft® (sertraline) and Prozac® (fluoxetine) for depression
    • AVC OB Meds: Demerol, Gentamycin, Darvocet-N, Vicodin, Morphine,
    D Studies in humans and other reports show that when pregnant women use the medicine, some babies are born with problems related to the medicine. However, in some serious situations, the medicine may still help the mother and the baby more than it might harm.
    • Paxil® (paroxetine) for depression
    • Lithium for bipolar disorder
    • Dilantin® (phenytoin) for epileptic seizures
    • Some cancer chemotherapy
    X Studies or reports in humans or animals show that mothers using the medicine during pregnancy may have babies with problems related to the medicine. There are no situations where the medicine can help the mother or baby enough to make the risk of problems worth it. These medicines should never be used by pregnant women.

    Posted in Drugs, NS 121 - OB, Semester II | Tagged: | Comments Off on 5 Pregnancy Category Ratings – A, B, C, D, X

    Mod 12 Drugs

    Posted by Laura on November 7, 2009

    Mod 12 Drug with notes

    I have updated this file to show cholingeric use for glaucoma 11/9/09

    Posted in Day-to-Day, Drugs | Comments Off on Mod 12 Drugs

    Mod 12 Drugs – Worksheet

    Posted by Laura on October 31, 2009


    After I have filled this, I’ll post my info, but this may help you get going!

    Prescription_Drug_Narcotic_Pills Prescription_Drug_Sedative_Pills prescription_drug_Stimulant_card_master

    Posted in Day-to-Day, Drugs, NS111 - Fundamentals | Comments Off on Mod 12 Drugs – Worksheet

    Module 7 Meds

    Posted by Laura on October 25, 2009

    Mod 7 drug cards

    You can print them out on cards. Check alignment first.

    Question: which one is the non-NSAID?


    Posted in Drugs, NS111 - Fundamentals | Comments Off on Module 7 Meds

    Module 11 Drugs

    Posted by Laura on October 6, 2009

    Download a copy of drugs here

    (what a pain – needed a little local anesthetic here)

    Posted in Day-to-Day, Drugs, NS111 - Fundamentals | Comments Off on Module 11 Drugs

    Module 5 drugs

    Posted by Laura on September 30, 2009

    Drug Dosage Action Side effects
    Thiazide diuretic          antihypertensives, diuretic (management of mild to moderate hypertension/edema/renal dysfunction
    Hydrochlorothiazide PO Blocks Na reabsorption in DGT were only 5-10% is usually reabsorbed. Pres for mild-mod Hypervolemia. Lowers BP Hypokalemia (nursing intervention for hypokalemia is to get prescribed potassium supplements.)
    Loop Diuretics (indications: edema due to heart failure, hepatic impairment or renal disease. Hypertension)
    Furosemide(Lasix) PO-edema, IM IV Block Na reabsorption in the Asced. – Loop Henle where 20-30% of filtered Na is normally reabsorbed. Prescribed for severe Hypervolemia. F and E: dehydration, , hypochloremia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, hyponatremia, hypovolemia, metabolic alkalosis. Hemat: APLASTIC ANEMIA, AGRANULOCYTOSIS,Geri: Diuretic use is associated w/ increase risk for falls in older adults.
    Bumetanide(bumex) Similar to above. No Life threatening.
    Potassium sparing diuretics (indications: counteract K loss, treatment edema or hypertension) weak diuretic
    Spironolactone – Aldactone PO edema Weak diuretic inhibit Na reabsorption. Saving Potassium Hyperkalemia (main difference in diuretics)Salt substitutes include potassium and should be used with caution.
    Potassium Prescribed to avoid the precaution of hypokalemia from Thiazide and loop diuretics
    Magnesium Prescribed due to decreased magnesium levels with loop and Thiazide diuretics due to decreased reabsorption and excretion by kidneys.
    Where sodium goes, water flows…..Azotemia (increased nitrogen levels in the blood) – can occur with FVE (fluid volume excess) Hypervolemia

    Acute weight gain = 2.2 lb ( 1 kg) = 1 Liter of fluid

    Severe edema-ANASARCA

    Print a copy here

    Posted in Day-to-Day, Drugs, NS111 - Fundamentals, Resources | Comments Off on Module 5 drugs

    Module 3 Drugs – A work in progress

    Posted by Laura on September 20, 2009

    Click here for Drugs NS111 Mod 3 Anti-infectives

    Still not complete, but close. Please give feedback if you have some more data. Thanks.

    Posted in Day-to-Day, Drugs, NS111 - Fundamentals, Resources | Comments Off on Module 3 Drugs – A work in progress

    Mod 4 Drugs

    Posted by Laura on September 15, 2009

    Drug Chart for objectives Module 4 Elimination, Click here

    Guedel’s Stages of Anesthesia

    Stage Alternative Nomenclature Key Features Nursing Management
    Stage 1: Analgesia (administration to LOC) Induction Analgesia/numbness

    Loss of senses

    Auditory/visual hallucinations

    Maintain tranquil environment
    Stage 2: Excitement

    (Vary depending on: type/amount premedication. Anesthetic agent used. Degree of external stimuli)

    Exaggerated reflexes

    Client may struggle

    Periods of apnea

    Vomiting or incontinence may occur

    Reduced with use of balanced anesthesia

    Maintain airway

    Protect against aspiration

    Stage 3: Surgical Anesthesia Plane 1 Eye movement stops Maintain airway

    Protect against aspiration

    Plane 2 Partial intercostals paralysis

    Divergent pupil dilation

    Plane 3 Complete intercostals paralysis
    Plane 4 Diaphragmatic paralysis
    Stage 4: Medullary Paralysis Toxicity Respiratory arrest

    Vasomotor collapse


    (Most surgical procedures happen here)

    Posted in Drugs, NS111 - Fundamentals, Resources | Comments Off on Mod 4 Drugs