Student Nurse Laura

Orem – "creative effort of one human being to help another human being."

Functions of the Nephron components

Posted by Laura on September 15, 2009

nephron (Large)

Functions of the Nephron components
Glomerulus Filtration
Proximal tubule Reabsorption of glucose, potassium, sodium, amino acids, water, and nutrients; remaining fluid isotonic
Loop of Henle Sodium and chloride reabsorbed in ascending loop. Counter current mechanism produces decrease in osmolarity of filtrate in ascending loop of Henle. Filtrate leaves loop of Henle as hypotonic urine.
Distal tubule Sodium and bicarbonate are reabsorbed. Potassium, hydrogen, and ammonia may be secreted. ADH is necessary to reabsorb water at this site. Filtrate leaves the distal tubule as hypotonic urine
Collecting duct ADH, if present, will reabsorb water at this site. Urine may be hypertonic. If ADH is unavailable or not functioning, dilute urine (hypotonic) may be excreted.
ADH – Antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin) released from Posterior pituitary. Acts at distal tubule and collecting duct to reabsorb water/increase plasma volume/lowering plasma osmolarity.
Aldosterone – Stimulated from Angiotensin II. Released from Adrenal cortex of kidney. Stimulated by salt depletion (loss of blood, excessive dieresis, increased potassium levels) and causes sodium retention in the kidney at the distal convoluted tubule to preserve extracellular fluid volume.

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